approximately 460,000 tonnes/year of concentrates, producing matte for subsequent conversion to blister copper in existing Peirce-Smith converters. Ausmelt successfully completed this project with a CENTUM CS 3000 production control system from Yokogawa Australia.
The process for converting a copper sulphide matte to blister copper, is achieved by adding the copper sulphide matte and flux to a suitable agitated slag phase; and injecting, from a discharge tip at the lower end of a top-submerged lance, an oxidizing gas suitable ...
· 4. Higher availability of the intensely cooled Ausmelt furnace utilizing Outotec continuous cast copper elements. As such, the Ausmelt process has a 14–20% lower electrical energy consumption and approximately 7% reduction in overall energy costs at an energy price of USD$30/GJ (10c/kWh equivalent).
· Subsequently, this Flash process has been improved over time. Other process developments are the Ausmelt submerged lance smelting, the Mitsubishi continuous smelting, slag cleaning and blister ...
Figure 1: Overview of copper production Benefication process Figure 2: Overview of a typical beneficiation process at a concentrator Sulfidic copper ores are too dilute for direct smelting. Smelting these materials would require too much energy and very large furnace ...
The blast or shaft furnace is well-suited for smelting high-grade, lumpy copper ore. If only fine concentrates are available, they must first be agglomerated by briquetting, pelletizing, or sintering. Because of this additional step and its overall low efficiency, the blast furnace lost its importance for primary copper production and is currently used in only a few places, for example, Glogow in Poland.
Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtain copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of physical and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors. As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be ...
production of blister copper. Air is added to the matte material and the oxygen reacts with sulphur, iron, lead, zinc. The sulphur from the metal sulphides provides the energy (exothermic reaction) to complete the conversion of matte to blister copper. The blister
An Ausmelt smelting and rotary holding furnace replaced three old shaft furnaces. The new smelting system processes approximately 460,000 tonnes/year of concentrates, producing matte for subsequent conversion to blister copper in existing
· Blister copper and sulphuric acid are smelter products. The blister copper is delivered to refineries in Europe and Asia for final processing to copper metal. Sulphuric acid is a critical component in the mining industry particularly for uranium and copper production businesses.
The main smelting product is molten black copper(80% Cu), which is converted to rough copper (96% Cu) then fire refined and cast into anodes (98.5% Cu). These processes do not completely remove Ni and Sn from Cu, so the refining furnace product must be electrorefined. Electrorefining also recovers Ag, Au, and platinum-group metals.
Abstract: The process for converting a copper sulphide matte to blister copper, is achieved by adding the copper sulphide matte and flux to a suitable agitated slag phase; and injecting, from a discharge tip at the lower end of a top-submerged lance, an oxidizing gas suitable for reacting with the matte to produce blister copper which forms or adds to a continuous blister copper phase below ...
process has also been adapted to continuous converting of copper matte to blister copper 7-9, and low-grade nickel matte to Bessemer matte 2,10, whereupon it is called the ISACONVERT™ process.
process at Caletones Smelter with production capacity of 383 000 tons of copper annually, is presented in Figure 1. Basically, the current process involves four main stages to transform copper sulphide concentrate into blister copper, as follows:
· The copper ores are crushed, ground, and undergo concentration by froth flotation, matte smelting, and converting to blister copper. The blister copper must undergo additional steps of fire refining and electrolytic refining before the purity of copper increases to 99
production of blister copper. During Converting 1, solid copper matte is continuously fed to the Ausmelt furnace at about 60 tonnes per hour with a feeding time of 4 hours.
· Process improvements making use of Ausmelt technology are possible at virtually every copper, nickel and PGM smelter in southern Africa. While other technologies could well be suitable for some of these applications, Ausmelt exhibits a great deal more flexibility than most techniques.
The copper production furnace which poses the greatest refractories challenge is the converting unit. Converting refers to oxidation of molten Cu-Fe-S matte to form blister copper (~99% Cu). Copper matte is tapped with approx. 1200 C from primary smelters and
Ausmelt Copper Capability 2005 (LR) - AUSMELT TSL TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITY & EXPERIENCE IN... VIP VIP 100w VIP ...
Blister copper The unrefined copper of about 98.5% purity produced from the converting step of copper smelting. Calcium ferrite slag A slag based on CaO that contains FeO and Fe 2 O 3, which can absorb highly oxidized iron and thus is used in continuous copper converting under higher oxygen partial pressures than in conventional converting processes.
World mine production of copper in 2014, kt/a TOTAL 18 700 Other 2400 13% Indonesia 400 2% Poland 425 2% Kazakhstan 430 2% Mexico 520 3% Canada 680 4% Zambia 730 4% Russia 850 5% Australia 1000 5% DRC 1100 6% USA 1370 7% Peru 1400
production and more than 2/3 of Chilean production and its expected to grow its share over the time. •Smelting arise as a strategic process for copper producer countries. Chile maintains around 9 percent of global smelting production. •New technology
Ausmelt has developed a process that allows the production of blister copper from copper concentrates, using either one or two furnaces depending on the scale of the operation. Ausmelt''s top submerged lance technology has been applied to numerous smelting processes including the recovery of most non-ferrous metals, and iron production.
· The blister copper imported for the electro-refining process totaled 0.554 Gg/year, and the exported blister copper totaled 13.9 Gg/year. The refinery scrap recovered in the production stage to produce refined copper totaled 39.5 Gg/year.
Ausmelt technology opens up new opportunities for the economic processing of complex copper smelter dusts. Not only can the technology separate more of the unwanted elements to produce a clean blister copper for refining, but it can also allow production of fume and precious metal products that can be readily upgraded to produce high-grade, valuable products.
The process is a continuous, multi-step process which produces blister copper from concentrates in three interconnecting furnaces. Concentrate and oxygen-enriched air (30-35% O 2 ) enter the smelting furnace through vertical lances and are smelted to produce a …
Outotec Ausmelt Process in PGM-bearing materials production As in any extraction process, recovery of the metals is crucial. Fortunately there is little tendency for the PGMs to form species that can dissolve in the slag phases present during the various
· In 2015, global blister production from smelters totalled 16.1Mt contained copper against total electro refined production of 18Mt of cathode copper. The shortfall was filled by high-grade scrap; the recovery of copper from high-grade scrap is estimated to have totalled 1.95Mt, and the intermediary market for copper blister was therefore approximately balanced.
· The remaining mixture is a molten copper sulfide referred to as matte. The next step in the refining process is to oxidize liquid matte in order to remove iron to burn off sulfide content as sulfur dioxide. The result is 97-99%, blister copper. The term blister copper comes from the bubbles produced by sulfur dioxide on the surface of the copper.
of a typical copper sulphide concentrate. Tons/day/m2 of hearth Reverberatory furnace 4–83,4,5 Flash furnace 9–125 Ausmelt furnace 50–1006 The application of Ausmelt technology to base metal smelting, now and in the future by P.N. Vernon* and S.F. Burks†